The application you need for this is called Desktop Folder and can be found in the AppCenter or you can copy/paste this command;
sudo apt install com.github.spheras.desktopfolder
You’ll find Desktop Folder in Applications —> Accessories. When you start Desktop Folder it will immediately enable your Desktop, so any links in your Desktop folder will be visible on your Desktop.
If you want add a panel or two, simple right click on your Desktop and choose New —> Panel or Link to Panel which give an option to choose and existing directory eg. your Documents folder. It’s possible to change the color and transparency of your Panels if you like. Or change size of the Panel(s).
Tested on: elementary OS 5.1.7